§ 1194.22 Web-based
intranet and internet information and applications.
(a) A text equivalent for
every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt",
"longdesc", or in element content).
(b) Equivalent alternatives
for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.
(c) Web pages shall be
designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without
color, for example from context or markup.
(d) Documents shall be
organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.
(e) Redundant text links
shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.
(f) Client-side image maps
shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions
cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.
(g) Row and column headers
shall be identified for data tables.
(h) Markup shall be used to
associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more
logical levels of row or column headers.
(i) Frames shall be titled
with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.
(j) Pages shall be designed
to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and
lower than 55 Hz.
(k) A text-only page, with
equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site
comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished
in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever
the primary page changes.
(l) When pages utilize
scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the
information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text
that can be read by assistive technology.
(m) When a web page
requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client
system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or
applet that complies with §1194.21(a) through (l).
(n) When electronic forms
are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using
assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and
functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all
directions and cues.
(o) A method shall be
provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.
(p) When a timed response
is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate
more time is required.
Note to §1194.22: 1. The Board interprets paragraphs
(a) through (k) of this section as consistent with the following priority 1
Checkpoints of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) (May 5,
1999) published by the Web Accessibility Initiative of the World Wide Web
Section 1194.22 Paragraph
WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint
2. Paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section are different from
WCAG 1.0. Web pages that conform to WCAG 1.0, level A (i.e., all priority 1
checkpoints) must also meet paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this
section to comply with this section. WCAG 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/WAI-WEBCONTENT-19990505.
Mike there were a few things that I noticed that you might
want to add. Below is
some code a wrote recently. 508 strictly says that you must
use <caption> tags
on all data tables. It will not pass an audit here if they
don't have them. Also
I would give an example of how to set up a data table with
multiple rows hence
the cfvariable "r" below. Here at POSTAL, we use a
text to speech program called
JAWS. This program treats a one row table like the one on
page 3 of your word
document as a layout table and the "summary"
attribute is not read in a layout
table. 508 Auditors have hit me with stupid shit that they
such as all tables(including layout tables) need summaries.
This is wrong but
just to keep them off my back I just put summaries for all
my tables. This
wording is ' summary="Layout table" .' This usually makes them happy. Also the
way the do an audit is by viewing the source from the browser.
They don't audit
using any text to speech readers. In the w3.org for html 4.0
you can replace the
"ID" attribute in the <th> tag with
'scope="col"' in order to not have to use
that varibale r below. This works perfectly with JAWs and
takes much less code,
buuuutttttt 508 does not recognize the 'scope attribute'
because 508 was written
before the scope attribute was implemented in higher
versions of html. I have
tried to get them to amend this for months but I just get
the cold shoulder. No
one is around in that department that first drafted 508 and
the people in charge
of 508 think the original is just fine.
Also, I don't think I saw anything on label tags and
'tabindex' attributes for
links,buttons,an input types. You must have these to pass a
CELLSPACING="0" BORDER="1" WIDTH="60%"
SUMMARY="Active directory issues">
CLASS="headerText2">The were <cfoutput>
records returned for
PORTFOLIO_NAME EQ "ALL">all portfolios.<cfelse>the
ID="h1" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="35%"
NOWRAP> Index </TH>
ID="h2" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="20%"
NOWRAP> Application </TH>
NOWRAP> Acronymn </TH>
ID="h4" CLASS="headerText2" NOWRAP> ACE Interim
ID="h6" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="35%"
NOWRAP> Status </TH>
NOWRAP> Action </TH>
CLASS="text" <CFIF EVALUATE(R MOD 2) EQ
ID="r#r# h1" NOWRAP> #INDEX_NUMBER# </TD>
ID="r#r# h2" NOWRAP> #NAME# </TD>
ID="r#r# h3" NOWRAP> #ACRONYMN# </TD>
NOWRAP> #INTERIM_SOLUTIONS[evaluate(INTERIM_SOLUTION+1)]# </TD>
ID="r#r# h6" NOWRAP> #STATUS# </TD>
over the documents you sent. Overall it
is a good overview, but, I feel it is lacking in good examples. I noticed that in one of the documents, you
state that all images except shims require an alt tag. I'm guessing that 'shims' are your term for
the oft used transparent images. The
HTML 4.0 specification from the W3C states
that all images require the alt attribute (it's not a tag
but usually is called one anyway).
Since it is part of the specification, to be HTML 4.0 compliant, it must
be in the IMG tag. For 508, the attribute
remains empty (ALT=""). This
is important since IE (I think that's the one) will display the image name as
the alt text if alt is missing.
You didn't mention table linearization which is an important
aspect of understanding the impact 508 compliancy has on tables.
It is extremely important to 'pick your team' so to
speak. ADA-508 from the Access Board
Committee has their rules and they are the empowered authority to make the
rules. WCAG is a specifications group
and they have their own accessibility standards. Some are in line with what the Board is wanting. But, I have found the WCAG's guidance to be
extremely restrictive. Much harder to
get their A, AA compliance than it is to meet the intent of the 508 rules.
I was on the access board's forum for months and finally
left because of the confusion between the rules and the WCAG.
Some understood it but, hotter heads prevailed in the end.
Please don't take this the wrong way. It is meant to be constructive though it
probably doesn't come across that way.
I applaud your efforts and I hope more folks do something toward learning
the 508 stuff. It's a feather in the
cap for any development company out there to be able to say that they create
508 compliant sites.
Table linearization is the screen reader approach to
'viewing' a table.
Basically, a left-to-right top-to-bottom cell-by-cell look
through the table but when row spans and column spans are present, things can
Consider the attached image of a table.
It would be read by a screen reader in alphabetical order, A
through G. Depending on the layout,
sighted users could easily see how it is structured and read it. Screen readers have to process it logically
which is to say they do it linearly.
Good linearization by 508 standards (and WCAG) means that
the content of the table still makes sense when the table is
I was not sure how informed your users are with 508. For those with no knowledge, it could be a
little confusing trying to understand 508.
You do a good job of directing them to links to understand the regs.
I took a look through the article and slides. Nothing really pops out. You have done a good job of summarizing 508
and its regulations. I made some notes
in bold. I have a tendency to be
detailed so I would provide more information in the suggestion column. But that's my preference and style.
Your presentation is very focused as it should be since you
are primarily interested in CF and how it helps make web sites 508
compliant. 508 does cover accessibility
for other disabilities, but the visually impaired seem to be most affected by
what our expertise is in.